History of the Church, Vol.1 Chapter 23 [Jan. 1833 - Mar. 1833]

The Enjoyment of Spiritual Blessings In the Church--The Word of Wisdom.

[For an explanation of abbreviations see vol. 1 Chapter 1.]

[Copyright © 1999 BOAP]


THIS winter(1) was spent in translating the scriptures; in the School of the Prophets; and sitting in conferences. I had many glorious seasons of refreshing. The gifts which follow them that believe and obey the Gospel, as tokens that the Lord is ever the same in His dealings with the humble lovers and followers of truth, began to be poured out among us, as in ancient days;--for as we, viz,: Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams, Newel K. Whitney, Hyrum Smith, Zebedee Coltrin,(2) Joseph Smith, Sen., Samuel H. Smith, John Murdock, Lyman E. Johnson,(3) Orson Hyde, Ezra Thayer, High Priests; and Levi Hancock,(4) and William Smith,(5) Elders, were assembled in conference, on the 22nd day of January, I spoke to the conference in another tongue, and was followed in the same gift by Brother Zebedee Coltrin, and he by Brother William Smith, after which the Lord poured out His Spirit in a miraculous manner, until all the Elders spake in tongues, and several members, both male and female, exercised the same gift. Great and glorious were the divine manifestations of the Holy Spirit. Praises were sung to God and the Lamb; speaking and praying, all in tongues, occupied the conference until a late hour at night, so rejoiced were we at the return of these long absent blessings.(6)


On the 23rd of January(7), we again assembled in conference; when, after much speaking, singing praying, and praising God, all in tongues, we proceeded to the washing of feet (according to the practice recorded in the 13th chapter of John's Gospel), as commanded of the Lord. Each Elder washed his own feet first, after which I girded myself with a towel and washed the feet of all of them, wiping them with the towel with which I was girded. Among the number, my father presented himself, but before I washed his feet, I asked of him a father's blessing, which he granted by laying his hands upon my head, in the name of Jesus Christ, and declaring that I should continue in the Priest's office until Christ comes. At the close of the scene, Brother Frederick G. Williams, being moved upon by the Holy Ghost, washed my feet in token of his fixed determination to be with me in suffering, or in journeying, in life or in death, and to be continually on my right hand: in which I accepted him in the name of the Lord..

I then said to the Elders, As I have done so do ye; wash ye, therefore, one another's feet, and by the power of the Holy Ghost I pronounced them all clean from the blood of this generation; but if any of them should sin wilfully after they were thus cleansed, and sealed up unto eternal life, they should be given over unto the buffetings of


Satan until the day of redemption(8). Having continued all day in fasting, and prayer, and ordinances, we closed by partaking of the Lord's supper. I blessed the bread and wine in the name of the Lord, when we all ate and drank, and were filled(9); then we sang a hymn, and the meeting adjourned.(10)

I completed the translation and review of the New Testament, on the 2nd of February, 1833 and sealed it up no more to be opened till it arrived in Zion.(11)


Of the First Presidency(12), to the Church of Christ in Thompson,

Geauga County, Ohio.

KIRTLAND, February 6th, 1833.

Dear Brethren: We salute you, by this our epistle, in the bonds of love, rejoicing in your steadfastness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus our Lord: and we desire your prosperity in the ways of truth and righteousness, praying for you continually, that your faith fail not, and that you may overcome all the evils with which you are surrounded, and become pure and holy before God, even our Father, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

It has seemed good unto the Holy Spirit and unto us, to send this our epistle to you by the hand of our beloved Brother Salmon Gee(13), your messenger, who has been ordained by us, in obedience to the commandments of God, to the office of Elder to preside over the


Church in Thompson, taking the oversight thereof, to lead you and to teach the things which are according to godliness; in whom we have great confidence, as we presume also you have, we therefore say to you yea, not us only, but the Lord also, receive him as such, knowing that the Lord has appointed him to this office for your good, holding him up by your prayers, praying for him continually that he may be endowed with wisdom and understanding in the knowledge of the Lord, that through him you may be kept from evil spirits, and all strifes and dissensions, and grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

Brethren beloved, continue in brotherly love, walk in meekness, watching unto prayer that you be not overcome. Follow after peace, as said our beloved brother Paul, that you may be the children of our Heavenly Father, and not give occasion for stumbling, to Saint or sinner. Finally, brethren, pray for us, that we may be enabled to do the work whereunto we are called, that you may enjoy the mysteries of God, even a fullness; and may the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.


The following letter13a was written by John Murdock, a High Priest, (who had previously been with the Church in Thompson), to Salmon Gee, Elder of the Church in Thompson:

KIRTLAND, February 11, 1833.

Beloved brethren and sisters in the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, I beseech you in the bowels of mercy to remember the exhortation which I gave you while I was yet present with you, to beware of delusive spirits. I rejoice that our Heavenly Father hath blessed you greatly, as He also has me, in enabling me to speak the praises of God and the mysteries of the kingdom in other tongues according to promise; and this without throwing me down or wallowing me on the ground, or any thing unbecoming or immoral, also, without any external operation of the system, but it is the internal operation and power of the Spirit of God, so that I know that those odd actions and strange noises are not caused by the Spirit of the Lord as is represented by Brother King.(14) Therefore in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, by the Spirit of the living God, according to the authority of the Holy Priesthood committed to me, I command Brother Thomas King, (as though I were present), to cease from your diabolical acts of enthusiasm, and also from acting as an Elder in this Church of Christ, until you come and give full testimony to the High Priests in Kirtland, that you are worthy of that holy calling; because those are the things of God, and are to be used in the fear of God; and I now not only command you but exhort you in behalf of your soul's salvation, to submit, and let Brother Gee be upheld by the prayer of faith of every brother and sister, and if there be this union of spirit and prayer of faith, every false spirit shall be bound and cast out from among you.


My beloved children in the bonds of the Gospel, and the bowels of mercy, which is the everlasting love of God I do beseech you to live faithful and in obedience to the commandments of God; and in the name of the Lord Jesus, I say, the blessings of God shall attend you.


February 12.--Having received Seaton's paper, from Rochester, New York, containing a part of my communication, written on the 4th of January, I wrote as follows:(15)

To N. E. Seaton,(16) Rochester. DEAR SIR;--I was somewhat disappointed on receiving my paper with only a part of my letter inserted in it. The letter which I wrote you for publication, I wrote by the commandment of God(17), and I am quite anxious to have it all laid before the public, for it is of importance to them; but I have no claim upon you, neither do I wish to urge you, beyond that which is reasonable, to do it. I have only to appeal to your extended generosity to all religious societies that claim that Christ has come in the flesh; and also to tell you what will be the consequence of a neglect to publish it.

Some parts of the letter were very severe upon the wickedness of sectarianism I acknowledge and the truth remember, is hard and severe against all iniquity and wickedness, but this is no reason why it should not be published, but the very reason why it should be. I lay(18) the ax at the root of the tree and I long to see many of the sturdy oaks, which have long cumbered the ground, fall prostrate. I now say unto you, that if you wish to clear your garments from the blood of your readers, I exhort you to publish that letter entire; but if not, the sin be upon your head. Accept, sir the good wishes and tender regard of your unworthy servant,



February 13.--A council of High Priests assembled to investigate the proceedings of Brother Burr Riggs(19), who was accused of failing to magnify his calling as High Priest, and had been guilty of neglect of duty, of abusing the Elders, and of treating their admonitions with contempt. After the council had considered the case, Brother Riggs agreed to make satisfaction, but did not show much humility.

February 15.--In a council I ordained Harpin Riggs,(20) and Isaac McWethy(21), Elders.

February 17.--In conference I ordained John Johnson to the office of Elder.

February 26.--A special council of High Priests assembled in Zion(22), to take into consideration my letter to Brother Phelps of the 11th of January, and the revelation called the Olive Leaf, referred to in my letter, and the epistle of Orson Hyde and Hyrum Smith of the 14th of January, in behalf of the conference of High Priests: and Oliver Cowdery, William W. Phelps, and John Corrill were appointed a committee to write an epistle from the conference to the brethren in Kirtland; which was written and sanctioned by the conference.

The same day a conference of High Priests was again called in Kirtland, concerning Brother Burr Riggs, who was accused of neglecting to make satisfaction to the Church as he had agreed, and disgracing the High Priesthood(23) by neglect of duty, and saying he did not care how soon he was cut off from the Church. He was cut off by a unanimous vote of the council.

February 27.--I received the following revelation(24):


[D&C 89] [February 27, 1833]

1. A Word of Wisdom, for the benefit of the council of high priests, assembled in Kirtland, and the church, and also the saints in Zion--

2. To be sent greeting; not by commandment or constraint, but by revelation and the word of wisdom, showing forth the order and will of God in the temporal salvation of all saints in the last days--

3. Given for a principle with promise, adapted to the capacity of the weak and the weakest of all saints, who are or can be called saints.

4. Behold, verily, thus saith the Lord unto you: In consequence of evils and designs which do and will exist in the hearts of conspiring men in the last days, I have warned you, and forewarn you, by giving unto you this word of wisdom by revelation--

5. That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of your Father, only in assembling yourselves together to offer up your sacraments before him.

6. And, behold, this should be wine, yea, pure wine of the grape of the vine, of your own make.

7. And, again, strong drinks are not for the belly, but for the washing of your bodies.

8. And again, tobacco is not for the body, neither for the belly, and is not good for man, but is an herb for bruises and all sick cattle, to be used with judgment and skill.

9. And again, hot drinks are not for the body or belly.

10. And again, verily I say unto you, all wholesome herbs God hath ordained for the constitution, nature, and use of man--

11. Every herb in the season thereof, and every fruit in the season thereof; all these to be used with prudence and thanksgiving.

12. Yea, flesh also of beasts and of the fowls of the air, I, the Lord, have ordained for the use of man with thanksgiving; nevertheless they are to be used sparingly;

13. And it is pleasing unto me that they should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine.

14. All grain is ordained for the use of man and of beasts, to be the staff of life, not only for man but for the beasts of the field, and the fowls of heaven, and all wild animals that run or creep on the earth;

15. And these hath God made for the use of man only in times of famine and excess of hunger.

16. All grain is good for the food of man as also the fruit of the vine, that which yieldeth fruit, whether in the ground or above the ground--

17. Nevertheless, wheat for man, and corn for the ox, and oats for the horse, and rye for the fowls and for swine, and for all beasts of the field, and barley for all useful animals, and for mild drinks, as also other grain.

18. And all saints who remember to keep and do these sayings, walking in obedience to the commandments, shall receive health in their naval and marrow to their bones;

19. And shall find wisdom and great treasures of knowledge, even hidden treasures;

20. And shall run and not be weary, and shall walk and not faint.

21. And I, the Lord, give unto them a promise, that the destroying angel shall pass by them, as the children of Israel, and not slay them. Amen.


March 8.--I received the following revelation:

Revelation. [D&C 90](25)[March 8, 1833]

1. Thus saith the Lord, verily, verily I say unto you my son, thy sins are forgiven thee, according to thy petition, for thy prayers and the prayers of thy brethren have come up into my ears.

2. Therefore, thou art blessed from henceforth that bear the keys of the kingdom given unto you; which kingdom is coming forth for the last time.

3. Verily I say unto you, the keys of this kingdom shall never be taken from you, while thou art in the world, neither in the world to come;(26)

4. Nevertheless, through you shall the oracles be given to another, yea, even unto the church.

5. And all they who receive the oracles of God, let them beware how they hold them lest they are accounted as a light thing, and are brought under condemnation thereby, and stumble and fall when the storms descend, and the winds blow, and the rains descend, and beat upon their house,

6. And again, verily I say unto thy brethren, Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams, their sins are forgiven them also, and they are accounted as equal with thee in holding the keys of this last kingdom;(27)

7. As also through your administration the keys of the school of the prophets, which I have commanded to be organized;

8. That thereby they may be perfected in their ministry for the salvation of Zion, and of the nations of Israel, and of the Gentiles, as many as will believe;

9. That through your administration they may receive the word and through their administration the word may go forth unto the ends of the earth, unto the Gentiles first, and then, behold, and lo, they shall turn unto the Jews.

10. And then cometh the day when the arm of the Lord shall be revealed in power in convincing the nations, the heathen nations, the house of Joseph, of the gospel of their salvation.

11. For it shall come to pass in that day, that every man shall hear the fullness of the gospel in his own tongue, and in his own language, through those who are ordained unto this power, by the administration of the Comforter, shed forth upon them for the revelation of Jesus Christ.

12. And now, verily I say unto you, I give unto you a commandment that you continue in the ministry and presidency.

13. And when you have finished the translation of the prophets, you shall from thenceforth preside over the affairs of the church and the school;

14. And from time to time, as shall be manifested by the Comforter, receive revelations to unfold the mysteries of the kingdom

15. And set in order the churches, and study and learn, and become acquainted with all good books, and with languages, tongues, and people.

16. And this shall be your business and mission in all your lives, to preside in council, and set in order all the affairs of this church and kingdom.

17. Be not ashamed, neither confounded; but be admonished in all your high-mindedness and pride, for it bringeth a snare upon your souls.

18. Set in order your houses; keep slothfulness and uncleanness far from you.

19. Now, verily I say unto you, let there be a place provided, as soon as it is possible, for the family of thy counselor and scribe, even Frederick G. Williams.

20. And let mine aged servant, Joseph Smith, Sen., continue with his family upon the place where he now lives; and let it not be sold until the mouth of the Lord shall name.

21. And let my counselor, even Sidney Rigdon, remain where he now resides until the mouth of the Lord shall name.

22. And let the bishop search diligently to obtain an agent, and let him be a man who has got riches in store--a man of God, and of strong faith--

23. That thereby he may be enabled to discharge every debt; that the storehouse of the Lord may not be brought into disrepute before the eyes of the people.

24. Search diligently, pray always, and be believing, and all things shall work together for your good, if ye walk uprightly and remember the covenant wherewith ye have covenanted one with another.

25. Let your families be small, especially mine aged servant Joseph Smith's, Sen., as pertaining to those who do not belong to your families;

26. That those things that are provided for you, to bring to pass my work, be not taken from you and given to those that are not worthy--

27. And thereby you be hindered in accomplishing those things which I have commanded you.

28. And again, verily I say unto you, it is my will that my handmaid Vienna Jaques(28) should receive money to bear her expenses, and go up unto the land of Zion;

29. And the residue of the money may be consecrated unto me, and she be rewarded in mine own due time.

30. Verily I say unto you, that it is meet in mine eyes that she should go up unto the land of Zion, and receive an inheritance from the hand of the bishop;

31. That she may settle down in peace inasmuch as she is faithful, and not be idle in her days from thenceforth.

32. And behold, verily I say unto you, that ye shall write this commandment, and say unto your brethren in Zion, in love greeting, that I have called you also to preside over Zion in mine own due time.

33. Therefore, let them cease wearying me concerning this matter.

34. Behold, I say unto you that your brethren in Zion begin to repent, and the angels rejoice over them.

35. Nevertheless, I am not well pleased with many things; and I am not well pleased with my servant William E. M'Lellin, neither with my servant Sidney Gilbert, and the bishop also, and others have many things to repent of.(29)

36. But verily I say unto you, that I, the Lord, will contend with Zion, and plead with her strong ones, and chasten her until she overcomes and is clean before me.

37. For she shall not be removed out of her place. I, the Lord have spoken it. Amen.


March 9.--Having come to that portion of the ancient writings called the Apocrypha, I received the following:

Revelation. [D&C 91](30) [March 9, 1833]

1. Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you concerning the Apocrypha(31)--

There are many things contained therein that are true, and it is mostly translated correctly;

2. There are many things contained therein that are not true, which are interpolations by the hands of men.

3. Verily, I say unto you, that it is not needful that the Apocrypha should be translated.

4. Therefore, whoso readeth it, let him understand, for the Spirit manifesteth truth;

5. And whoso is enlightened by the Spirit shall obtain benefit therefrom,

6. And whoso receiveth not by the Spirit, cannot be benefited. Therefore it is not needful that it should be translated. Amen.


March 12.--A council of High Priests(32) assembled in the school room(33) and decided that Horace Cowin(34) and Zerubbabel Snow(35), Amasa M. Lyman(36) (37)and William F. Cahoon(38), Jenkins Salisbury(39) and Truman Wait(40), journey east on a mission, two by two, paired as their names are written. Brothers Cowin and Salisbury were ordained at the same time.


March 15.--A council was called to consider the case of Brother Lake(41), from Wooster, Wayne county, Ohio, who came professing to have received revelations. On investigation, it was unanimously agreed, that said Brother Lake was under the influence of an evil spirit, and that his license as Priest be taken from him.

The same day I received the following:

Revelation to Enoch (Joseph Smith, Jun.,) given to the Saints in Kirtland.(42) [D&C 92](43) [March 15, 1833]

1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, I give unto the united order, organized agreeable to the commandment previously given, a revelation and commandment concerning my servant Shederlaomach(44) [Frederick G. Williams], that ye shall receive him into the order. What I say unto one I say unto all.

2. And again, I say unto you my servant Shederlaomach [Frederick G. Williams], you shall be a lively member in this order; and inasmuch as you are faithful in keeping all former commandments you shall be blessed forever. Amen.

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Notes Chapter 23

1. Sources used by Joseph Smith's clerks for this chapter include the Kirtland Council Minute Book (KCMB), hence the appearance of conference and disciplinary meeting proceedings. No journal of Joseph Smith exists for this period. The minutes used for this chapter were altered to appear as though they were written by Joseph Smith himself. Thus while the original minutes refer to Joseph in the third person, the ms history changes this to the first person reference to preserve the style of the previous text.

2. Zebedee Coltrin was born at Ovid, Seneca county, New York, September 7, 1804. He was the son of John and Sarah Coltrin and was baptized into the Church soon after its organization. (BHR) [See notes at D&C 52 in this volume for more on Coltrin.]

3. Lyman E. Johnson was born in Pomfret, Windsor county, Vermont, October 24 1811. He was baptized into the Church in February 1831 by Sidney Rigdon and was ordained an Elder under the hands of the Prophet Joseph Smith. (BHR) [See notes at D&C 68 this volume.]

4. Levi Ward Hancock was born April 7, 1803 in old Springfield, Hampden county Massachusetts. He was the youngest son of Thomas Hancock and Amy Ward Hancock. When Levi was about two years old his family removed to Massachusetts to Ohio settling in Chagrin Cayahoga county not far from Kirtland. Here Levi grew to manhood, occupied chiefly in farming with his father ever he purchased a farm in Ashtabula county which is in the extreme northeast part of Ohio. He was directly in the pathway of Elders Cowdery, Pratt, Whitmer and Peterson, when journeying westward on their mission to the Lamanites, and shortly after they passed through his neighborhood he followed them to Kirtland where he was baptized on the 16th of November, 1830, by Elder Parley P. Pratt, and was soon afterwards ordained an Elder under the hands of Oliver Cowdery. (BHR) [See notes at D&C 52 in chapter 15 this volume for more on Hancock.]

5. William Smith was the fifth son of Joseph Smith, Sen., and Lucy Smith. He was born in Royalton, Windsor county, Vermont, March 13, 1811; and was baptized soon after the Church was organized. (BHR) [ William Smith was the son of Joseph Smith, Sr., and Lucy Mack. Born 13 March 1811 at Royalton, Windsor County, Vermont. Baptized 9 June 1830 by David Whitmer. Ordained teacher 5 October 1830. Moved to Ohio 1831. Ordained priest 25 October 1831. Ordained elder 19 December 1832, by Lyman E. Johnson. Married Caroline Amanda Grant 14 February 1833. Two children: Mary Jane and Caroline. Ordained high priest 21 June 1833. Member of Zion's Camp 1834. Ordained apostle 15 February 1835. Mission to eastern states with others of Twelve in summer and fall of 1835. Charged with rebellious spirit 30 October 1835. Revelation dated 3 November 1835, called to humble himself. Tried for unchristian conduct 2 January 1836. Confessed and was forgiven 3 January 1836. Attended dedication of Kirtland Temple March 1836. Attended Hebrew School in Kirtland during winter of 1835-36. Charter member of Kirtland Safety Society January 1837. Traveled to Caldwell County, Missouri, with Prophet and others in fall of 1837. Left Kirtland 27 September 1837. Arrived in Far West late October 1837. Returned to Kirtland 1837. Moved to Far West, Missouri, in spring of 1838. Expelled from Missouri 1839. Settled in Plymouth, Illinois, 1839. Disfellowshipped 4 May 1839. Restored to fellowship 25 May 1839. Failed to go to England on mission with others of Twelve 1839. Appointed to collect money for temple April 1841. Returned to Illinois by late 1841. Initiated into Masonry 9 April 1842. Elected member of Illinois State House of Representatives August 1842. Edited The Wasp 16 April-10 December 1842. Mission to East in summer of 1843. Returned to Nauvoo 22 April 1844. Received endowment 12 May 1844. Left for East May-June 1844. Associated with Twelve after death of Prophet 1844. Preaching in Philadelphia by 31 August 1844.. Returned to Nauvoo 4 May 1845. Wife, Caroline, died 22 May 1845. Ordained Presiding Patriarch of Church 24 May 1845. Gave several patriarchal blessings in summer 1845. Married Mary Jane Rollins on 22 June 1845. Sealed to Mary Ann West, Mary Jones, and Priscilla Mogridge in Nauvoo 1845. Sealed to Sarah and Hannah Libbey 1845. Dropped as one of Twelve Apostles and Patriarch 6 October 1845. Excommunicated for apostasy 12 October 1845. Traveled to eastern states preaching against Brigham Young in fall of 1845. Returned to Nauvoo March 1846. Associated with several apostate Mormon factions after excommunication, including James J. Strang 1846-47. Married Roxie Ann Grant 18 May 1847. Two children: Thelia and Hyrum Wallace. Married Eliza Elise Sanborn before 1858. Three children: William Enoch, Edson Don Carlos and Louie May. Served in United States Civil War. Moved to Elkader, Clayton County, Iowa, 1858. Rebaptized by J. J. Butler early 1860. Subsequently withdrew from church. Joined Reorganized LDS Church 1878. Authored William Smith on Mormonism (Lamoni, Iowa: 1883). Moved to Osterdock, Iowa, 1890. Died in Osterdock, Clayton County, Iowa, 13 November 1893. RJS, 276.]

6. Several small differences exist between the ms history and the text here, changes evidently made by B. H. Roberts. For instance the words, "exercised the same gift" were added. The conference minutes are introduced by "This winter . . . for as we" -these words were inserted by the editors as a preamble to the quotation of the January minutes from the KCMB. The KCMB minutes were recorded by Frederick G. Williams. The history editors altered the KCMB text to make it appear as though it was a first person narrative of Joseph Smith. See volume 1, chapter 1, note 1 of this history.

The text seems to suggest that the "gift of tongues" was exercised here for the first time in the Church. Various sources claim this was not the first instance of this spiritual gift among Latter-day Saints and Joseph Smith in particular. Here it is important to note that the history is taken from minutes where the phrasing and interpretation of events originates with someone other than Joseph Smith. See notes at chapter 21 this volume and Josiah Jones report, chapter 14 notes. While some have classified these experiences as just spouting gibberish (labeled with the NT word "glossolalia") in fact things were much more controlled than that in the new Church [Cp. Ezra Benson Autobiography, July 1840, LDS Archives.] Such experiences were generally under the NT dictum of one to one correspondence between interpretation and "ecstatic speech." [For some discussion of glossolalia in NT times see Werner Jaeger, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969); Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, "The Corinth that Saint Paul Saw," Biblical Archaeologist 47 (1984). Augustine dismisses the gift of tongues as a dispensation to the primitive church and no longer available in his day (Hom. In 1 John 6:10). See also ABD 6:596ff.]

Indeed, the following revelation with remarkably descriptive language related to the JST Genesis text (cp. PGP Moses 7), given perhaps in conjunction with the School of the Prophets, was "sang by the gift of tongues and translated:"

age after age has rolled away according to the sad fate of man countless millions forever gone at length the period of time has come that oft was seen by a prophetic eye and written too by all holy men inspired of the Lord a time which was seen by Enoch of Old at a time when he stood upon the mount which was called the Mountain of God as he gazed upon nature and the corruption of man and mourned their sad fate and wept and cried with a loud voice and heaved forth his sighs Omnipotence Omnipotence O may I see thee - and with his finger he touched his eyes and he saw heaven he gazed on eternity and sang an Angelic song and mingled his voice with the heavenly throng Hosanna Hosanna the sound of the trump around the throne of God echoed and echoed again and rang and reechoed until eternity was filled with his voice he saw yea he saw and he glorified God the salvation of his people his City caught up through the gospel of Christ he was the beginning the ending of men he saw the time when Adam his father was made and he saw that he was in eternity before a grain of dust in the balance was weighed he saw that he emanated and came down from God he saw what had passed and then was and is present and to come therefore he saw the last days the Angel that came down to John and the angel that is now flying having the everlasting gospel to commit unto men - which in my soul I have received and from death and bondage from the Devil I'm freed and am free in the gospel of Christ and I'm waiting and with patience I'll wait on the Lord hosanna loud sound the trump come eternity to ring hosanna forever I'm waiting the coming of Christ a mansion on high a celestial abode a seat on the right hand of God angels are coming the Holy Ghost is falling upon the saints and will continue to fall the Saviour is coming yea the Bridegroom prepare ye prepare yea the cry has gone forth go wait on the Lord the Angels in glory will soon be descending to join you in singing the praises of God the trump loud shall sound the dark veil soon shall rend heaven shall shake the earth shall tremble and all nature shall feel the power of God gaze ye saints gaze ye upon him gaze upon Jesus hosanna loud sound the trump His Church is caught up hosanna praise him ye saints they stand at his feet behold they are weeping they strike hands with Enoch of Old they inherit a city as it is written the City of God loud sound the trump they receive a celestial crown hosanna the heaven of heavens and the heaven are filled with the praises of God [KRB, 48-49, handwriting of Frederick G. Williams, dated February 27, 1833. Spelling and punctuation preserved.]

What was meant by "tongues" in this early day is not always apparent. But David Whitmer's comment as related by his brother John to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery suggests that it was not necessarily what today often passes for this gift among various charismatic groups. Whitmer wrote: "Br. David says he can speak in all the tongues on earth. We shall probably begin to worship here [Missouri] in tongues tomorrow" [John Whitmer to Oliver Cowdery and Joseph Smith, July 29, 1833, LDS Archives.]

The manifestation of this gift among the Latter-day Saints became very widespread at this period. Particular mention of this was made in July 1833 by a Jackson County vigilante mob who demanded that the Mormons leave the region. Entire meetings were conducted by speaking "in tongues." Almon Babbit's example was typical:

"Elder Babbit then stepped upon a large stone that was near [during a baptismal service] and spoke in tongues. . . when he had ceased speaking, he then gave the meaning thereof, which was so beautiful, and so filled with the Spirit of God, that every eye was wet with tears." [Margrette Young autobiography, LDS Archives.] The appearance of this gift decreased somewhat among the Latter-day Saints in the years following the Kirtland era but during the nineteenth century it was a relatively frequent part of LDS Church meetings. [JD 10:324] However, President Young apparently found such exercises somewhat dangerous to the stability of the Church by the time the Salt Lake Valley was colonized. The ad hoc relief societies of the Winter Quarters and early Utah period were still rife with glossolalia, many of the sisters finding some comfort in these displays even though Joseph Smith himself had cautioned members about them. [See sermons given (near) 8 August 1839 and 28 April 1842, for example.] Mindful of the bad experiences with the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, President Young and the other Church leaders felt that the women's meetings might be subverted to complaints about Church authorities and polygamy in particular. They were dissolved with the "reformation" and then the subsequent coming of Johnston's army.

Later the pending influx of "gentiles" into Utah with the completion of the transcontinental railroad would move President Young to call for the organization of a women's auxiliary in LDS wards to help guard against outside influences. While the resulting women's meetings would once again be a hotbed for tongue-speaking, the construction of temples and their resulting organization of women workers would remove some of the spiritual imperative from these meetings. Ironically, an analysis of Joseph Smith's remarks to the "Female Relief Society of Nauvoo" suggests that he intended it to serve in part as a prototype of an organization to supervise female ordinance workers in the Nauvoo temple.

The new Utah ward Relief Society meetings became in part a mimic of the Young Men's and Young Women's Mutual Improvement gatherings: a means of religious instruction, cultural retrenchment and home industry together with a mandate to assist the poor.

By the mid-twentieth century, the display of this gift in the fashion of early Mormonism had disappeared according to minute records of LDS wards. With the death of those Church members who had participated in these displays in the early Church, curiosity about this and some other public displays of "gifts of the Spirit" diminished and by the end of the nineteenth century the gift of tongues moved into the background of Latter-day Saint history.

Public teaching about the gift of tongues in the LDS Church today is done mainly with reference to the ability to learn languages rapidly for the purpose of preaching or manifestations where preaching in one language is understood in another. [TPJS, 162; EM vol. 2 "Gifts of the Spirit"; Oral History Project, HDC; David O. McKay, Gospel Ideals, p. 552; Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 2:26ff; Ronald W. Walker, "`Going to Meeting' in Salt Lake City's Thirteenth Ward, 1849-1881: A Microanalysis," in New Views of Mormon History, Essays in Honor of Leonard Arrington, Davis Bitton and Maureen Beecher, eds. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987); Richard L. Jensen, "Forgotten Relief Societies, 1854-1857," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 16 (Spring 1983): 105-125.]

7. This is the opening meeting of the school of the prophets. See note 5, chapter 22 this volume.

8. Compare the 1843 revelation, D&C 132:26.

9. As noted by Coltrin, the Lord's supper in these meetings was done after the NT fashion - it formed a meal of the day. The tradition was preserved in private meetings of LDS Apostles at least until the beginning of the 20th century.

10. Ms history reads, "then sung a hymn and went out."

11. It was the intention of the Prophet to have this revised version of the scriptures which he had made with such laborious care published in Zion, at the printing establishment of the Church in that place (New Testament and Book of Mormon to be published together; see p. 341) but before the work could even be commenced, the persecution arose which made the undertaking impracticable. And such was the unsettled state of the Church throughout the remaining years of the Prophet's life that he found no opportunity to publish the revised scriptures, and to this day there is no authoritative publication [Roberts ignores the RLDS publication of 1867] of his translation of the Old and New Testaments given to the world except in such excerpts as appear in the Pearl of Great Price, on this subject the late President George Q. Cannon, in his Life of Joseph Smith, remarks in a footnote (p. 112)--"We have heard President Brigham Young state that the Prophet before his death had spoken to him about going through the translation of the Scriptures again and perfecting it upon points of doctrine which the Lord had restrained him from giving in plainness and fulness at the time of which we write [2nd Feb., 1833]." (BHR)

[Despite the remark in Cannon's book quoted by Roberts, all available records suggest that Joseph Smith fully intended to publish the "new translation" of the Bible. As Roberts notes, continual financial problems and other conflicts kept the project from completion. On the other hand, Smith sometimes made remarks about various passages in the Bible, making corrections of texts either based on his language study or inspiration. It may be true that he would have made other changes to the text later in his life. HC 4:187, WJS. It should be noted too that the text in the history was actually a note in the KCMB written by Frederick G. Williams, not Joseph Smith. The history editors inserted the remark as a historical note but the text gives the impression that it was written or spoken by Joseph Smith.]

12. The reference to the First Presidency here is an anachronism, and does not appear in the original letter. The body was called the Presidency of the High Priesthood at this point. Indeed the KCMB and Joseph Smith letterbook from which the letter is extracted do not contain a reference to this body at all. A revelation calling Frederick G. Williams to the presidency was received prior to this letter (see note in the previous chapter), but the formal ordination did not take place until March (see notes at D&C 90, this chapter and chapter 24, this volume). Nevertheless it appears that Williams was already functioning in this capacity. See notes 24 and 26 below. Willard Richards inserted the words "of the First Presidency" when he copied the letter into the ms history.

13. Salmon Gee, b. 16 October 1792 Lyme, New London County, Connecticut. M. Sarah Watson Crane 1814. Baptized July 1832 by Zebedee Coltrin while living in Madison, Geauga County, Ohio. Ordained elder by Sidney Rigdon 4 February 1833. Ordained seventy 1836 as one of second quorum but later listed as an elder. Labored on Kirtland temple. Daughter, Electa, died 28 January 1836 aged 2 years. One of the presidency of the seventy, 6 April 1837. Dropped from presidency by own request (did not intend to fulfil duty), 6 March 1838. Member of Kirtland high council 1841-1844. Instructed children to follow apostles after Joseph Smith's death. D. 13 September 1845 Ambrosia, Lee County, Iowa, buried Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illinois. [PJS 1:486]

13a. This letter and the other letters of this chapter were extracted by the church historians from the Joseph Smith letterbooks.

14. The odd "spiritual" happenings already noted when the Mormons first began to take up residence in Ohio were apparently still troubling them to some degree. Murdock's response indicates that Church leaders had matured considerably in understanding and dealing with untoward manifestations. See notes at chapter 14, this volume.

15. The letter appears in the Joseph Smith Letterbook, pp. 27-28.

16. The name appears variously as N. E. Sexton, and N C Sexton in the ms history and Joseph Smith Letterbook. The correct name is N. C. Saxton. See note 7, chapter 22 of this volume.

17. This is the only reference to a revelation involving the letter (which appears in chapter 22 this volume).

18. The Joseph Smith Letterbook says, "It lays."

19. Riggs was excommunicated thirteen days later, rebaptized in 1834. See note at D&C 75:17 (chapter 18, this volume) for more on Riggs. The minutes of the Kirtland Church councils in this chapter were quoted from the KCMB.

20. Harpin Riggs, b. April 12, 1809 at Oxford, New Haven County, Connecticut. Member of Zion's Camp. Member of First Quorum of Seventy, left Church by 1837. [Joseph Young, "Organization of the Seventies." Kirtland Council Minute Book; HC 2:183; John Murdock journal typescript, p. 14; Luman Shurtliff autobiography typescript, p. 27; PWJS, 675.]

21. Isaac McWithey or McWithy, b. abt. 1786. Was a resident of Bennington, Genesee County, New York in 1830 with wife and two children. Ordained Elder 15 February 1833. Attended conference with Joseph Smith at the home of Alvah Beman at Livonia, Livingston County, New York 17 March 1834 for the purpose of recruiting members of Zion's Camp and to obtain money to pay Church debts. Appointed temporary member of High Council in Missouri 1836. Received "anointing" in Kirtland Temple 25 January 1836. Tried before Kirtland High Council 11 June 1836 for refusing to support the Church financially. Lived in Kirtland, Ohio from 1836 to 1848. D. 1851 Sherman, Lake County, Ohio. [PJS 1:501, Kirtland Council Minute Book, JD 1:255-256.]

22. The minutes of this council in Missouri follow:

Zion February 26 1833 A special council of High Priests met to transact such business as by them shall seem proper


Edward Partridge
Isaac Morley
John Corrill
William W. Phelps
Thomas B. Marsh
Lyman Wight
Wheeler Baldwin
Newel Knight
Peter Dustin
Levi Jackman
Oliver Cowdery
John Whitmer
Sidney Gilbert
David Whitmer
Peter Whitmer
Harvey Whitlock
Simeon Carter
Daniel Stanton
Solomon Hancock
Calvin Beebee.

First. The Bishop laid before the council the effect of the proceedings of the Solemn Assemblies as held throughout Zion attended by brs Edward Partridge John Corrill Isaac Morley Oliver Cowdery & John Whitmer. [These solemn assemblies were a series of reformation meetings instituted by the bishop, characterized as "day[s] of confession and repentance."]

Resolved that a committee be appointed to write an epistle to our brethren in Kirtland: Voted that Oliver Cowdery William W. Phelps & John Corrill be the Committee to write the epistle.

Conference adjourned until six O'clock in the evening, in the meantime the epistle to be written. Prayer by Simeon Carter.

Convened according to adjournment, the epistle accepted by the conference. We then all kneeled before the Lord & asked him to effect a perfect harmony between us & our brethren in Kirtland which was the desire of our hearts.

Conference adjourned until four weeks from to-morrow

Prayer by br. Solomon Hancock.

John Whitmer Clerk.

23. I.e., Riggs had been ordained a high priest on 25 October 1831. [See note at D&C 75:17 this volume (chapter 18).]

24. According to Zebedee Coltrin, the revelation was not received in the little school room over the Whitney store, but in an adjoining room (known as Joseph's "translating room") [Coltrin, ibid.] Apparently those in the school immediately discarded their tobacco and pipes in the fireplace after hearing the revelation. Tea and coffee were frowned upon in the extreme for some time after this while Coltrin recalled that licorice root was used to "ease off" the use of tobacco. Brigham Young, while not present at the meeting offered this account several decades later:

The first school of the prophets was held in a small room situated over the Prophet Joseph's kitchen, in a house which belonged to Bishop Whitney, and which was attached to his store, which store probably might be about fifteen feet square. In the rear of this building was a kitchen, probably ten by fourteen feet, containing rooms and pantries. Over this kitchen was situated the room in which the Prophet received revelations and in which he instructed his brethren. The brethren came to that place for hundreds of miles to attend school in a little room probably no larger than eleven by fourteen. When they assembled together in this room after breakfast, the first they did was to light their pipes, and, while smoking, talk about the great things of the kingdom, and spit all over the room, and as soon as the pipe was out of their mouths a large chew of tobacco would then be taken. Often when the Prophet entered the room to give the school instructions he would find himself in a cloud of tobacco smoke. This, and the complaints of his wife at having to clean so filthy a floor, made the Prophet think upon the matter, and he inquired of the Lord relating to the conduct of the Elders in using tobacco, and the revelation known as the Word of Wisdom was the result. [JD 12:158]

This revelation appeared in print first as a broadsheet with a portion of D&C 88 in early 1834 or perhaps late 1833. [Crawley, Bibliography, 44] There are several early mss copies extant. One appears in Wilford Woodruff's copy of the BC, penciled in at the back. Another in BLC Bk. B copied in by A. S. Gilbert and one in the KRB copied by F. G. Williams. All date prior to August 1834. The revelation appeared in the 1835 D&C as section 80. Aside from inconsequential standardization, the text of the revelation has been very stable with two exceptions. Prior to the 1876 edition of the D&C, verses 1, 2 and 3 of the text of the revelation as found in this chapter formed the headnote or introduction to the revelation (first appearing in the 1835 D&C). When Orson Pratt edited the new 1876 D&C, he made the introduction part of the body of the revelation. No explanation for this change appeared at the time. It is conceivably simply an error introduced by the printing process and never corrected, or he may have had reference to the KRB, where Williams does not separate the "introduction" or headnote from the text. The other variation is possibly also a printing error introduced with the 1921 edition of the D&C. This is the comma following the word "used" in verse 13. A lack of punctuation here could offer a different interpretation of the verse. Cp. D&C 49:18-19.

The Mormons were not alone in their dietary rules in the 19th century. The temperance movement of the time was a vocal and influential source of diet and behavior though often more extreme in its recommendations. But the Mormon dietary rules claim an interesting longevity and motivation. The "introduction" to the revelation has the character of blunting the impact of the counsel in the revelation and indeed the specifics regarding "hot" drinks (interpreted by everyone of the day as coffee and tea) and tobacco induced varying compliance. The occasional party among Church members where wine was served was not unknown after the revelation while smoking tobacco seems to have diminished. Chewing tobacco remained a common practice among the Mormons for many years. From time to time Church leaders made the abstention from "strong drink," tobacco and coffee/tea a rule of faith and at other times the rule was relaxed. The general Church population tended to regard the revelation as instruction to be temperate, and not necessarily to abstain from the use of the mentioned substances. During the first ten years after the revelation the compliance with the prohibitions was moderate among the Mormons. After Brigham Young and the apostles led the way west, those Church members who remained behind occasionally joined other Mormon splinter groups. They essentially carried with them the notion that the revelation was advice, not law. The Mormons in Utah tended to gradually lessen their observance of the revelation until 1860. Then observance increased, but still fluctuated. The Saints who went to Utah gradually became numerous enough that multiple LDS Temples were built. Compliance with the proscriptive parts of the revelation gradually became a requirement to enter these Temples. This tended to induce more rapid change in the general Church population until by the middle of the 20th century, a member's refusal to use such "stimulants" became one of the major hallmarks of the faith and those who did not comply were regarded as true backsliders both inside and outside the community.

The reversal of such common practices as tobacco use was somewhat remarkable in the face of conflicting statements from medical advisors and the press. Certainly the gradually increasing emphasis on the revelation by Church leaders after 1900 shows a remarkable insight into changing health practices (the great increase in cigarette smoking for example) well ahead of contemporary medicine. But the spiritual advantages suggested near the end of the revelation became the foundation for this change in practice and perception among the Latter-day Saints whether by practical necessity (temple recommend and/or community acceptance) or spiritual conviction although publicity and many sermons have tended to focus on the health benefits of abstaining from tobacco and alcohol.

Other parts of the revelation concerning what various domestic livestock should eat, medicinal uses of tobacco and the use of "strong drink" for personal hygiene seem to be practical observations of the times rather than prescriptive for all time while further diet and health restrictions have been added to those in the text such as proscribing the use of illicit drugs. [Thomas G. Alexander, "The Word of Wisdom: From Principle to Requirement," Dialogue 14 (Fall 1981): 78-88; Thomas G. Alexander, Mormonism in Transition, pp. 258-71; Leonard J. Arrington, "An Economic Interpretation of the 'Word of Wisdom'" BYUS 1/1 37-48; Lester E. Bush, Jr. "The Word of Wisdom in Early Nineteenth-Century Perspective." Dialogue 14 (Fall 1981):47-65; Peter Crawley, BYUS 12/4, 526; John H. Holbrook, "Smoking and health, 1973," Ensign June 1973, 29; Joel Hills Johnson, Voice from the Mountains (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1881), p. 12; Edward L. Kimball, "The history of LDS temple admission standards," Journal of Mormon History, 24/1 (Spring 1998), 135-176; Stanley B. Kimball, BYUS 15/4, 453; Joseph L. Lyon and Steven Nelson, "Mormon health," Dialogue, 12/3, 84-96; Robert J. McCue, "Did the Word of Wisdom Become a Commandment in 1851?" Dialogue 14 (Fall 1981): 66-77; Paul H. Peterson, "An Historical Analysis of the Word of Wisdom," (unpubl. Master's thesis, BYU, 1972); Royal Skousen, BYUS 26/4, 7; Ronald W. Walker, BYUS 24/2, 144; TS June 1, 1842; JD 8:361-362; Deseret News Weekly May 11, 1870; Journal of Wilford Woodruff, February 21, 1859.]

25. This revelation exists in several mss. Possibly the original or a copy of the original is found in the Newel K. Whitney collection at Brigham Young University in the handwriting of Frederick G. Williams. Another Williams ms of the revelation is found in the KRB. The KRB copy has the following note at the end: "Given by Joseph the seer and written by Frederick [G. Williams] Counsellor & scribe" once again indicating that Williams was serving as a counselor to Smith prior to his formal "ordination" -see note 27 below for a summary of this presidency. The earliest publication is found in the 1835 edition of the D&C. [Woodford]

26. Here the previous conditional promises to Joseph Smith regarding his position are modified. The promise is no longer conditional.

27. This revelation notes the reorganization of the Presidency of the High Priesthood initially authorized in November 1831 [see notes around the date November 1831 (in this history) and the other dates mentioned here]. In January 1832 Joseph Smith was sustained and ordained as President of the High Priesthood. In March of that year, Smith was authorized to take two counselors which he did (Jesse Gause, Sydney Rigdon). Rigdon temporarily lost his position in July 1832 but was reinstated. Gause was excommunicated in December 1832. In January 1833, Williams was called as a counselor, replacing Gause. In March, with this revelation, Rigdon and Williams are reconfirmed as counselors, with the additional responsibility of holding the "keys of the kingdom" with Smith. Customarily in Church presidencies today, only the president is given "keys" - interpreted today as the ability to grant permission to other Church officers to perform various functions. At the school of the prophets meeting on March 18, 1833, Rigdon requested that he and Williams be formally ordained by the laying on of hands to their responsibility. The minutes of this meeting read:

This day an assembly of the high Priests meet at the School room of the prophets and were organized in due form by solum prayer to the most high by Sidney Rigdon then proceded to ordain Doctor Hurlbert to be an elder under the hand of Sidney Rigdon after which Bro. Sidney arose and desired that he and Bro Frederick Should be ordained to the office that they had been called viz to the of President of the high Priesthood and to be equal in holding the keys of the Kingdom with Brother Joseph Smith j- according to a revelation given on the [8th] day of March 1833 in Kirtland saying this, and again verily I say unto thy brethren Sidney and Frederick their sins are forgiven them also and they are accounted equal in holding the Keys of this last kingdom, and again I give unto you a commandment that you continue in this ministry and presidency and when you have finished the translating of the prophets you shall from thenceforth preside over the affairs of the Church and the school from time to time as shall be manifest by the comforter receive revelation to unfold the mysteries of the Kingdom and set in order the Church. Accordingly Bro. Joseph proceded to and ordained them by the laying on of the hands to be equal with him in holding the Keys of the Kingdom and also to the Presidency of the high Priesthood. [Kirtland Council Minute Book, 16-17, original spelling preserved; see also the next chapter of the history (p. 333) where these minutes are quoted together with some other interesting events that took place on this occasion.]

Williams received a certificate of ordination two days later which reads:

A conference of High Priests of the Church of Jesus Christ certify that Frederick G. Williams the bearer of this after due examination of his moral character and Christian attainments was found worthy to receive their testimonials from under our hands. We therefore certify that he was regularly ordained to the Presidency of the High Priesthood under the hands of Joseph Smith Jr. after the holy order of God according to a commandment given the 8th day of March AD 1833 to preside over the affairs of the Church and Kingdom of Jesus Christ as established in these last days.

Given under our hands at Kirtland Geauga Co. Ohio North America the 20th day of March 1833. [Signed by Joseph Smith Jr. and Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams collection LDS archives.]

This development in Church government probably contributed to the regulations regarding the "high council" (presaged by a November 1831 revelation) associated with the Presidency of the High Priesthood, announced in February 1834, where the counselors to the President may act with full authority when he is absent. Later, the presidency would be designated as a "quorum" among other leading quorums (Twelve Apostles, Seventy, etc.) These developments led in part to the confusion concerning who should succeed Joseph Smith when he was murdered in the Carthage, Ill. jail 27 June 1844. Do the counselors succeed the president upon his death? This was the point of view of Rigdon after Smith's death. Rigdon may have had a chance of having serious influence over the Mormons if he had been in full fellowship with Joseph Smith at the time of his death but this was not the case. Smith had in fact gradually positioned his brother Hyrum and the apostles as his next in command during the last four years of his life. When the time came, the great majority of Mormons chose to follow Brigham Young and the apostles. A fuller discussion of the matter will be given in volume 7 of this history. See notes at D&C 64:5 (chapter 16, this volume).

28. Vienna Jaques was the daughter of Henry and Lucinda Jaques (Father born in France). Born 10 June 1787 in Beverly, Essex County, Massachusetts. Baptized near Boston before July 1832. Came to Kirtland before 30 April 1833. Directed to consecrate property to Church and receive inheritance in Zion 8 March 1833 in the present revelation. Moved to Missouri in company with William Hobart 1833. Married to Daniel Shearer. No known children. Received Patriarchal Blessing from William Smith in Nauvoo 25 July 1845. Received endowment 22 January 1846 in Nauvoo Temple. Died in Salt Lake City, Utah, 7 February 1884.

29. McLellin had been excommunicated from the Church the previous December. Some problem existed with he and Gilbert. Gilbert may have joined the group who criticized Joseph Smith for various changes in Church organization. See pp. 317, 320 this volume.

30. Ms copies are found in BLC Bk. B and KRB. First published in 1835 D&C. No textual variants of significance.

31. The Apocrypha referred to here consisted of fourteen or fifteen books placed in early English Bibles between the OT and NT. The traditional list includes I and II Esdras; Tobit; Judith; the Additions of the Book of Esther; the Wisdom of Solomon; Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirah; Baruch, including the Letter of Jeremiah; the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men; Susanna; Bel and the Dragon; the Prayer of Manasseh; I and II Maccabees. However, the revelation could also be applied to the much larger (and growing) collection called the pseudepigrapha. The OT Apocrypha specifically is generally thought of as a fixed collection. Many Jews of the 2nd century B.C.E. claimed that prophecy had lasted only between Moses and Ezra. The Apocrypha were in fact composed long after Ezra and hence were attributed to authors who lived prior to Ezra to gain authority. However, as the Jews began to form a canon, the Apocrypha were generally not included. They appeared first in canonical texts with the famous Greek codices of the OT. Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus. All except the Maccabees and Wisdom of Solomon were composed in Palestine in a Semitic language (the others were written in Greek). [See James H. Charlesworth, ABD 1:292 and references there.] A NT Apocrypha (a much larger collection than the traditional OT Apocrypha) also exists, but is not mentioned directly in the revelation. However, some of the books traditionally called NT Apocrypha such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Peter have recently been dated as 1st century texts with renewed interest in the light they may shed on early Christianity. The revelation would naturally apply to these texts too.

32. Ad hoc councils of high priests formed a method of governance in the early Church until the first standing high councils were organized. In 1835 when the Quorum of Twelve Apostles was organized, it formed a "traveling high council" to regulate the Church away from headquarters. In the early years of Missouri, the Church was regulated by a council of seven high priests (of which the Missouri bishopric formed a part) who settled major questions, conducted Church discipline, chose presiding officers in local branches of the Church and otherwise formed the top level of Church leadership in Missouri until the Mormons were forced out of Jackson County.

33. Ms history says "school room of the prophets" identifying its location as the N. K. Whitney store.

34. Horace Cowin [also spelled Cowan or Cowen] joined the Church in 1833. He was ordained an elder by Lyman E. Johnson September 8, 1833 in Bath, New Hampshire. Marched with Zion's Camp. Later moved to Missouri. He served time in Liberty Jail in March 1839 on debt charges while Joseph Smith and other Church leaders were also incarcerated there.

35. Zerubbabel Snow, b. 29 March 1809, in St. Johnsbury, Caledonia County, Vermont, a son of Levi Snow and Lucina Streeter, brother of Mormon apostle Erastus Snow. Hearing the Gospel preached by Elders Orson Pratt and Lyman E. Johnson in Vermont, Elder Snow was baptized in 1832, went to Ohio, where he met the Prophet Joseph Smith 14 July 1834. Was a well-known and successful missionary. In the spring of 1833 Snow returned to Vermont, and remained there until April 1834, when he went to Ohio, joined Zion's Camp and traveled to Missouri; he acted as commissary of the Camp with Nathan Tanner. In the spring of 1836 the family sold their property in Vermont and made their home in Kirtland; from there they went to Iowa, and from there to Utah. Elder Snow was elected Attorney General of Utah Territory, 19 February 1869. D. 27 September 1888, in Salt Lake City, Utah.

36. Amasa Mason Lyman was born in the township of Lyman, Grafton county, New Hampshire, on the 30th of March 1813. He was the third son of Boswell Lyman and Martha Mason. His father dying when Amasa was about eight years of age, and some time later his mother marrying again he was reared in the home of his grandfather on the maternal side, Perez Mason, until he was eleven years of age. Perez Mason then retired from his farm to live with his eldest son Perley Mason with whom also, according to the wishes of his mother, Amasa lived during the next seven years. When young Lyman was in his eighteenth year he became thoughtful on the subject of religion and earnestly sought the favor of the Lord by righteous deportment, though without connecting himself with any of the religious sects. About one year later Elders Orson Pratt and Lyman E. Johnson passed through the section of New Hampshire where young Lyman lived on a preaching tour. He believed the message proclaimed by these new evangels and was baptized on the 27th of April, 1832 by Elder Lyman E. Johnson, and confirmed on the following day by Elder Orson Pratt. In consequence of the ill feelings which arose in his uncle's family owing to his joining the Church, Amasa departed from the home of his kindred and set out on foot for the gathering place of the saints in Ohio. After a journey of some seven hundred miles, in which he endured many hardships--for much of the journey was made on foot and with but scant means of subsistence--he arrived at Hiram in portage county, and engaged to work for Father Johnson at ten dollars a month. It was at this time that the Prophet was making his home at Father Johnson's though on the arrival of young Lyman at Hiram he was absent in Missouri. About the first of July, however, Joseph returned from his western journey, and Amasa had the joy of meeting the Prophet of the new dispensation. Of that meeting and the impressions it produced, he says: "Of the impressions produced I will here say although there was nothing strange or different from other men in his personal appearance, yet when he grasped my hand in that cordial way (known to those who have met him in the honest simplicity of truth), I felt as one of old in the presence of the Lord; my strength stand on my feet; but in all this there was no fear, but the serenity and peace of heaven pervaded my soul, and the still small voice of the spirit whispered its living testimony in the depths of my soul, where it has ever remained, that he was the man of God." Autobiographical Sketch of Amasa M. Lyman, Millennial Star, vol. vii, p. 173. (BHR) [See the following note for a more extensive sketch.]

37. Amasa Lyman was the son of Boswell Lyman and Martha Mason. Born 30 March 1813 in Lyman, Grafton County, New Hampshire. Baptized 27 April 1832. Ordained elder by Joseph Smith in Hiram, Ohio, 23 August 1832. Moved to Kirtland, Ohio, by summer of 1832. Mission in southern Ohio and Cable County, Virginia, with Zerubbabel Snow in fall of 1852. Appointed to travel east with William F. Cahoon on mission 12 March 1833. Ordained high priest 11 December 1833. Member of Zion's Camp 1834. Married Maria Louisa Tanner 10 June 1835. Eight children: Matilda, Francis Marion, Ruth Adelia, Amasa Mason, Maria Louisa, Lelia Deseret, Love Josephine, and Agnes Hila. Ordained seventy about March 1835. Charter member of and owned stock in Kirtland Safety Society 1837. Moved to Far West, Missouri, 1837. Arrested November 1838 for treason, and other charges. No conviction. Settled in Lee County, Iowa, in spring of 1840. Moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, 1841. Appointed to serve mission to New York City 7 October 1841. Initiated into Masonry 8 April 1842. Ordained apostle 20 August 1842, filling vacancy created by Orson Pratt's excommunication. Elected regent for University of Nauvoo 20 August 1842. Mission to southern Illinois with George A. Smith September 1842. Returned to Nauvoo 4 October 1842. Directed to settle with family in Shockoquon, Henderson County, Illinois, late 1842; remained until summer of 1843. Appointed member of First Presidency 20 January 1843. Received endowment 28 September 1843. Mission with family to Alquina, Fayette County, Indiana, 1843-44. Member of Council of Fifty probably as early as 11 April 1844. Appointed to campaign for Joseph Smith as President of United States April 1844. Returned to Alquina, Indiana, April 1844. Traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio, June 1844. Returned to Nauvoo 31 July 1844, after Prophet's death. Sustained member of Quorum of Twelve 12 August 1844. Member of board of trustees of Seventy's Library and Institute Association 1845. Sealed to Caroline Ely Partridge (born 1827 in Ohio) 6 September 1844. Five children: Martha Lydia, Frederick Rich, Annie, Walter Clisbee, and Harriet Jane. Sealed to Eliza Maria Partridge Smith for time 28 September 1844. Five Children: Don Carlos, Platte Dealton, Carlie Eliza, Joseph Alvin, and Lucy Zina. Sealed to Cornelia Eliza Leavitt (born 1825 in Ohio) 14 November 1844. Two known children: Lorenzo and Henry Elias. Sealed to Dianitia Walker (born 1818 in Ohio) July 1845. No children. Sealed in Nauvoo Temple to Paulina Eliza Phelps (born 1827 in Illinois) 16 January 1846. Seven known children: Oscar Morris, Mason Roswell, Clark, Charles Rich, William Horne, Solen Ezra, and Laura Paulina. Sealed in Nauvoo Temple to Priscilla Rebecca Turley (born 1829 in Upper Canada) 16 January 1846. Six known children: Theodore, Ira Depo, Isaac Newton, Albert Augustus, Stephen Alonzo, and Frances Priscilla. Sealed in Nauvoo Temple to Laura Reed (born 1829 in Ohio) 28 January 1846. No known children. Left Nauvoo for West 1846. Located in Winter Quarters. To Salt Lake Valley July 1847. Returned to Winter Quarters 1847. Appointed 8 April 1849 to travel to California with Orrin P. Rockwell to take consignment of mail to San Francisco. Left 20 April 1849. Returned to Salt Lake City about August 1849. Appointed to travel to California again September 1849 to present to California Constitutional Convention proposal that California and Deseret form one large state. Proposal rejected by California legislators. Explored possible sites for settlement in southern California 1850. Returned to Salt Lake City September 1850. Appointed 23 February 1851 to join with Charles C. Rich in leading company of Saints to San Bernardino, California. Left with company of 437 24 March 1851. Arrived in June 1851. Assisted in settling and presiding over Saints in San Bernardino 1851-57. Married Lydia Partridge 7 February 1853. Four known children: Edward Leo, Ida Evelyn, Frank Arthur, and Lydia Mae. Mission to Great Britain 1860. Left Salt Lake City 1 May 1860. Arrived in Liverpool 27 July 1860. Presided over European Mission with Charles C. Rich until 14 May 1862. Returned to Salt Lake City mid-September 1862. Appointed to settle Fillmore, Millard County, Utah, October 1862. Left for Fillmore mid-April 1863. Excommunicated 12 May 1870 for persisting in teaching unorthodox doctrine pertaining to atonement of Christ and for associating with Godbeites. Died in Fillmore, Millard County, Utah, 4 February 1877. [RJS, 266-267.]

38. William Farrington Cahoon, b. 7 November 1813, in Harpersfield, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, a son of Reynolds Cahoon and Thirza Stiles. He came with his parents to Kirtland in 1825, and heard the Elders (Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt and others) preach the gospel. He was baptized 16 October 1830, by Parley P. Pratt, was ordained a Priest and filled a mission to the States of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York in 1832-1833, filled another mission in 1833, and in 1834 went to Missouri with Zion's Camp, returning to Kirtland 17 November 1834. Member, first quorum of Seventy. He labored on the Kirtland Temple until that building was completed in 1836. M. Nancy Marinda Gibbs, Joseph Smith performed the ceremony. 15 February 1846, he crossed the Mississippi River with Saints on Sugar Creek. Arrived in the Great Salt Lake valley 24 September 1849. D. 6 April 1883, in Salt Lake City, Utah.

39. Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury, b. 1809 Lebanon, Madison County, New York. Blacksmith. Member of First Quorum of Seventy. M. Katherine Smith, sister of Joseph Smith, Jr. at Kirtland, Ohio, 8 January1831. Eight children. Participated in Zion's Camp. Excommunicated 1836. Followed Church to Missouri and Illinois. Did not go west. D. 1856 Plymouth, Hancock County, Ill. [PJS 1:511]

40. Truman Wait. B. 1810, Vermont. Baptized before 1833. Served mission to eastern states, 1833. Worked on Kirtland Temple. Elders licence taken 1844 for operating a "grog shop."

41. Not James Lake who came to Kirtland from Canada.

42. This phrase is obviously incorrect and does not appear in the ms history. The revelation had nothing to do with the Saints in Kirtland. The name in parentheses was inserted by Roberts. See note 43.

43. Several ms copies of this revelation exist, three in the handwriting of Frederick G. Williams himself. It is not determined whether one of these mss is the original. The only significant change is one of terminology. Published versions of the revelation use the term "order" while the early mss use the contemporary term, "firm." Williams was to become a principal of the Church firm as a natural consequence of his being part of the Presidency of the High Priesthood.

44. See notes at D&C 78 (chapter 18, this volume) for an explanation of the strange name.